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Proto-Apartheid at an Eastern Cape town

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Keith Tankard
The Time Traveller
Updated: 14 December 2009
(Contact the Project Coordinator)

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Primary Source Material:

1. Archives, Cape Town

    1/ELN 4/1/1/2 East London Magistrate, 1848-58
    1/ELN 5/1/1/1 East London Magistrate, 1848-57
    1/ELN 5/1/1/3 East London Magistrate, 1859-62
    3/ELN 1/1/1/1 Council Minutes, East London, 1874-8
    3/ELN 1/1/1/2 Council Minutes, East London, 1878-80
    3/ELN 1/1/1/3 Council Minutes, East London, 1880-1
    3/ELN 1/1/1/4 Council Minutes, East London, 1881-3
    3/ELN 1/1/1/5 Council Minutes, East London, 1883-5
    3/ELN 1/1/1/6 Council Minutes, East London, 1885-8
    3/ELN 1/1/1/7 Council Minutes, East London, 1888-92
    3/ELN 1/1/1/8 Council Minutes, East London, 1892-4
    3/ELN 1/1/1/10 Council Minutes, East London, 1896-7
    3/ELN 1/1/1/11 Council Minutes, East London, 1897-9
    3/ELN 1/1/1/12 Council Minutes, East London, 1899-1901
    3/ELN 1/1/1/14 Council Minutes, East London, 1903-4
    3/ELN 1/1/1/15 Council Minutes, East London, 1905-6
    3/ELN 1/1/1/18 Council Minutes, East London, 1908-9
    3/ELN 1/1/1/24 Council Minutes, East London, 1914
    3/ELN 1/1/1/33 Council Minutes, East London, 1926-7
    3/ELN 1 Correspondence File, Locations, 1919-24
    3/ELN 8 Correspondence File, Locations, 1903-10
    3/ELN 11 Correspondence File, Locations, 1903-19
    3/ELN 13 Correspondence File, Locations, 1904-16
    3/ELN 18 Correspondence File, Locations, 1917-23
    3/ELN 20 Correspondence File, Locations, 1900-19
    3/ELN 453 Correspondence File, Locations, 1898-1910
    3/ELN 924 Correspondence File, Locations, 1913-6
    3/ELN 925 Correspondence File, Locations, 1916-9
    BK 61 Magistrate, East London, 1856-60
    BK 63 Magistrate, East London, 1858-66
    BK 378 Schedules, 1857
    BK 379 Schedules, 1858
    BK 405 Letter Book, 1849-56
    CCT 188 Letters from East London, 1848-50
    CO 4489 Colonel Mackinnon, 1848-50
    DSGBK 1 BK Government, Letters, 1856-8
    GH 8/31 BK Chief Commissioner, 1857
    GH 20/2/1 British Kaffraria, 1853-8
    GH 22/2 High Commissioner, 1847-8
    NA 172 Civil Commissioner, A-W, 1874
2. Cory Library, Rhodes University
    MIC 172 William Greenstock's Diary
    MS 16 605 Henry Kitton's Diary, 1859-60
    MS 16 713 Bishop Cotterill's Letterbook
    MS 16 719 Letters of Rudolph von Hube
    MS 16 721 Letters of Edward Lees
    MS 16 826 East London Church Registers, 1849-52
3. East London Municipality
    Mayor's Minutes, 1881-1923
4. Mendelssohn Library, Cape Town
    7006, Cl.a968.7056. J Mackays Note Book in South Africa, 1876-6.


1. Books
    JE Alexander, Narrative of a Voyage of Observation among the Colonies of Western Africa, in the Flag-ship Thalia; and of a Campaign in Kaffir-land, on the Staff of the Commander-in-Chief in 1835 (London, 1837)

    R Gray, Journals of Two Visitations in 1848 and 1850, Part 2 (London, 1849), p 108.

2. Documents
    Acts of Parliament, Cape Town

    Act 23, 1880: The East London Municipality Act, 1880.
    Act 12, 1893: Local Bodies Increased Powers Act, 1893.
    Act 11, 1895: East London Municipality Amendment Act, 1895
3. Commission reports

    South African Native Affairs (Lagden) Commission, 1903-5
    Stallard Commission, 1923
    Minutes of the Bloemfontein Customs Conference, 1903
4. Newspapers

    Cape of Good Hope Government Gazette
    East London Dispatch
    East London Advertiser
    Frontier Standard
    Graham's Town Journal
    Izwi Labantu
    King William's Town Gazette
5. Papers laid before Parliament, Britain

    PP 1836, XXXIX [279] Frontier War, 1835-6
    PP 1847-8, XLIII [912] Correspondence, 1846-8
    PP 1847-8, XLIII [969] Correspondence, 1846-8
    PP 1854-5, XXXVIII [1969] Governor Grey, 1853-5
    PP 1857-8, XL [2352] Correspondence, 1856-7
6. Papers laid before Parliament, Cape Colony:

    G4-72 Superintendent-General of Education, 1871
    G3-73 Petition from Panmure
    G38-73 Eastern Districts Schools, 1873
    G11-74 Superintendent-General of Education, 1873
7. Papers laid before Parliament, South Africa:

    UG 34-1914. Report of the Tuberculosis Commission.
    UG 15-22. Report of the Native Affairs Commission for 1921


    J Benyon, Proconsul and Paramountcy in South Africa (Durban, 1980)

    V Bickford-Smith, Ethnic Pride and Racial Prejudice in Victorian Cape Town (Johannesburg, 1995)

    TRH Davenport, African Townsmen? South African Natives (Urban Areas) Legislation through the Years (Grahamstown, 1973)

    TRH Davenport, South Africa: A Modern History (Johannesburg, 1987)

    TRH Davenport, The Beginnings of Urban Segregation in South Africa: The Natives (Urban Areas) Act of 1923 and Its Background (Grahamstown, 1971)

    F Frescura, Rural Shelters in Southern Africa (Johannesburg, 1981)

    WA Lewis, Growth and Fluctuations, 1870-1913 (London, 1978)

    A Mabin & B Conradie, The Confidence of the Whole Country: Standard Bank Reports on Economic Conditions in Southern Africa, 1865-1902 (Johannesburg, 1987)

    AW Marx, Lessons in Struggle: South African Internal Opposition, 1960-1990 (Cape Town, 1992)

    P Maylam, A History of the African People of South Africa: from the Early Iron Age to the 1970s (London, 1989)

    A Odendaal, Vukani Bantu: The Beginnings of Black Protest Politics in South Africa to 1912 (Cape Town, 1984)

    N Parsons, A New History of Southern Africa (Harare, 1991)

    J Peires, The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement of 1856-7 (Johannesburg, 1989)

    DH Reader, Black Man's Portion: History, Demography and Living Conditions in the Native Locations of East London, Cape Province (Cape Town, 1961)

    S Saul, The Myth of the Great Depression (London, 1985)

    CGW Schumann, Structural Changes and Business Cycles in South Africa, 1806-1936 (London, 1939)

    HA Siepmann, The First Hundred Years of the Standard Bank (London, 1963)

    KPT Tankard, The Port Rex Story (East London, 1996)

    N Worden, The Making of Modern South Africa: Conquest, Segregation and Apartheid (Oxford, 1994)


    S Caldwell, "Segregation and Plague: King William's Town and the Plague Outbreaks of 1900-1907" in Contree: Journal of South African Urban and Regional History, No. 29 (1991)

    AJ Christopher, "Formal Segregation and Population Distribution in Port Elizabeth" in Contree, No. 24 (1988)

    AJ Christopher, "Race and Residence in Colonial Port Elizabeth" in South African Geographical Journal, Vol. 69, No. 1 (1987)

    MM Goedhals, "The Road to Disestablishment: Irish Anglicans in Nineteenth Century South Africa" in DP McCracken (ed), The Irish in Southern Africa, 1795-1910 (Durban, 1992)

    P Lewsen, "The Cape Liberal Tradition - Myth or Reality?" in Institute for Commonwealth Studies, Vol. 1

    MD Nash, "John Bailie at the Buffalo River Mouth" in Africana Notes and News, Vol. 23, No. 8 (1979)

    P Rich, "Segregation and the Cape Liberal Tradition" in Institute for Commonwealth Studies, Vol. 10, No. 26

    C Saunders, "The Creation of Ndabeni: Urban Segregation and African Resistance in Cape Town" in Studies in the History of Cape Town, Vol. 1 (1984)

    M Swanson, "The Sanitation Syndrome: Bubonic Plague and Urban Native Policy in the Cape Colony, 1900-1909" in Journal of African History, Vol. XVIII, No. 3 (1977)

    KPT Tankard, "The Role Played by Women in the Uitlander Refugee Crisis, 1899-1902: A Case-Study of the East London Humanitarian Effort" in Contree: Journal of South African Urban and Local History, No. 36, 1994.

    KPT Tankard, "The Strangulation of a Port: East London 1847-1873" in Contree: Journal of South African Urban and Regional History, No. 23 (1988)

    S Trapido, "Liberalism in the Cape in the 19th and 20th Centuries" in Institute for Commonwealth Studies, Vol. 4

    R Weikart, "The Origins of Social Darwinism in Germany, 1859-1895" in Journal of the History of Ideas (1993), pp 480-2.


    G Baines, The Port Elizabeth Disturbance of October 1920 (Rhodes University, Masters Thesis, 1988)

    RJ Bouch, The Colonisation of Queenstown (Eastern Cape) and Its Hinterland, 1852-1888 (London University, Doctoral Thesis, 1990)

    MM Goedhals, Anglican Mission Policy in the Diocese of Grahamstown under the First Two Bishops, 1853-1871 (Rhodes University, Masters Thesis, 1979)

    M Gibbens, Two Decades in the Life of a City: Grahamstown 1863-1882 (Rhodes University, Masters Thesis, 1982)

    TJ Gordon, Mdantsane: City, Satellite or Suburb? (Rhodes University, Masters Thesis, 1978)

    KS Hunt, The Development of Municipal Government in the Eastern Province of the Cape of Good Hope with Special Reference to Grahamstown, 1827-1882 (Rhodes University, Masters Thesis, 1958)

    JCS Lancaster, A Reappraisal of the Governorship of Sir Benjamin D'Urban at the Cape of Good Hope, 1834-1838 (Rhodes University, Masters Thesis, 1980)

    E Moorcroft, Theories of Millenarianism Considered with Reference to Certain Southern African Movements (Oxford University, Bachelor of Literature Thesis, 1967)

    R Sellick, A Study in Local History: Grahamstown, 1883-1904 (Rhodes University, Masters Thesis, 1983)

    KPT Tankard, East London: The Creation and Development of a Frontier Community, 1835-1873 (Rhodes University, Masters Thesis, 1985)

    KPT Tankard, The Development of East London through Four Decades of Municipal Control, 1873-1914 (Rhodes University, Doctoral Thesis, 1991)

    DA van Otten, Sir Philip E. Wodehouse: The Definition and Defence of British Imperial Interests in South Africa, 1861 to 1870 (University of Oregon, Doctoral Thesis, 1971)

    AC Webster, Land Expropriation and Labour Extraction under Cape Colonial Rule: The War of 1835 and the "Emancipation" of the Fingo (Rhodes University, Masters Thesis, 1991)

See also:

Contact: The Project Coordinator